gender stratification theory

The division of labor works to maximize resources and efficiency. 2006. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. Keister, Lisa A., and Darby E. Southgate. functionalist perspective of gender inequality. Stratification has always existed in our society but earlier the economic and caste barrier were considered as major reasons, but later on, female sociologists tactfully showed how gender equally plays an important role in stratifying our society. Gender stratification refers to the social ranking, where men typically inhabit higher statuses than women. Risman suggests that an intersectional approach to studying inequalities that takes into account that individuals’ self-perceptions are nested within interactions, which themselves are nested in institutional settings. Age stratification brings together the deceptively elusive individual characteristic of age, and the complex and dynamic social phenomenon of stratification. When an individual is being treated unfairly due to their gender, it is known as gender inequality. A Female Indian Construction: While the structural-functionalist perspective argues that gender inequalities exist as a form of the division of labor, the photograph above clearly illustrates that women need not be restricted to certain activities. Arab Spring, Mobilization, and Contentious Politics in the... Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis. Gender stratification occurs when gender differences give men greater privilege and power over women, transgender and gender-non-conforming people. From a symbolic interactionist perspective, gender is produced and reinforced through daily interactions and the use of symbols. Gender theories were used in eight different ways: 1. to test hypotheses, 2. integrate theories, 3. develop gender concepts and models, 4. interpret findings, 5. understand health problems, 6. illustrate the validity of other theories, 7. integrated into a gender blind theory, as well as to 8. critique of other gender theories. According to structural functionalists, gender serves to maintain social order by providing and ensuring the stability of such functional prerequisites. Therefore, their approach is normative in that it prescribes changes to the power structure, advocating a balance of power between genders. Radical feminism, in particular, evaluates the role of the patriarchy in perpetuating male dominance. Other sociologists applied traditional frameworks to stratification. According to Goffman, during an interaction, individuals will attempt to control the behavior of the other participants, in order to attain needed information, and in order to control the perception of one’s own image. Gender stratification occurs when gender differences give men greater privilege and power over women, transgender and gender-non-conforming people. Simply put, it is a system by which society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy. Their discussion of the persistence of gender inequality in education, paid work, and within families is very accessible. Thus, if society views a man as masculine, he will also perceive himself to be masculine. However, did white women face the same challenges that women of other races and ethnic groups did? It aims to understand the nature of gender inequality, and examines women’s social roles, experiences, and interests. Gender– It is a basis of classification from the ancient times were for a long time male society dominated by women. Thus, when people perform tasks or possess characteristics based on the gender role assigned to them, they are said to be doing gender (rather than “being” gender), a notion first coined by West and Zimmerman (1987). In response to this phenomena, the sociologist Charles H. Cooley’s developed the theory of the “looking-glass self” (1902). Imagine, for example, that you walk into a bank, hoping to get a small loan for school, a home, or a small business venture. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on Feminist theory uses the conflict approach to examine the reinforcement of gender roles and inequalities, highlighting the role of patriarchy in maintaining the oppression of women. Blumberg 1984 argues that economic dimensions of inequality are paramount, as they precede inequalities in other domains. Recall from Chapter 1 “Sociology and the Sociological Perspective” that functionalist theory assumes that the various structures and processes in society exist because they serve important functions for society’s stability and continuity. These differences arise from distinctions in biology, psychology, and cultural norms. Theorists Karl Marx and Max Weber disagreed about the nature of class, in particular. According to Cooley’s concept of the “looking-glass self,” an individual’s understanding of their gender role is based on how society perceives them. Sociologists have argued that we live in a patriarchal society.This means … Functional prerequisites may also refer to the factors that allow a society to maintain social order. There are a variety of approaches to the study of gender stratification. The same rights, the same duties. In sociology, interactionism is a theoretical perspective that understands social processes (such as conflict, cooperation, identity formation) as emerging from human interaction. Perhaps that will change once data regarding sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression becomes more widely available. The feminist movement, which was on the rise at the same time that functionalism began to decline, takes the position that functionalism neglects the suppression of women within the family structure. Conflict between the two groups caused things like the Women’s Suffrage Movement and was responsible for social change. Agency involves the relative capacity of the individual to influence occupational outcomes; equity pertains to the perceived fairness of occupational rewards. Feminist theory uses the conflict approach to examine the reinforcement of gender roles and inequalities, highlighting the role of patriarchy in maintaining the oppression of women. Because of this, we act and react to symbols based on their current assigned meanings. Most of the research in this area focuses on differences between men’s and women’s life circumstances, broadly … Gender and Stratification The study of gender and stratification is comparatively recent, being developed from feminist scholarship. This approach looks at society through a macro-level orientation, which is a broad focus on the social structures that shape society as a whole, and looks at both social structure and social functions. Social interaction is a face-to-face process that consists of actions, reactions, and mutual adaptation between two or more individuals. Gender Stratification In this paper, I am going to address gender stratification in relation to Marriage, Sexuality, and Reproductive health issues. Behind much of the inequalities seen in education, the workplace, and politics is sexism, or prejudice and discrimination because of gender. Gender & Society 18:429–450. However this essay shall be investigating the stratification by gender, referred to as gender inequality. She argues that a class orientation is crucial in gender research and should not be merely replaced by a new focus on sexuality. Sexism has always had negative consequences for women. Gender stratification can be examined at the level of individual outcomes and interactions or with a macro perspective that compares indexes of gender inequalities across countries. The book makes a strong argument that it is problematic, if not impossible, to examine class properly without also examining gender and race. All essays show how macro-level mechanisms and individual outcomes are linked and need to be considered jointly. Conflict theory asserts that social problems occur when dominant groups mistreat subordinate ones, and thus advocates for a balance of power between genders. Blumberg’s essay is a challenging read. Intersectionality suggests that various biological, social and cultural categories, including gender, race, class and ethnicity, interact and contribute towards systematic social inequality. Scholarly debates focus on which dimensions of inequalities are most relevant and the level at which inequalities are generated and maintained (i.e., individual, couple, family, group, or societal level). This view has been criticized for reifying, rather than reflecting, gender roles. Blumberg, Rae Lesser. Researchers have been challenged to explore gender, race, and class inequalities from an intersectional perspective, rather than treating gender as independent of race and class. Nevertheless, Blau, et al. 2006 points out that understanding contextual factors and their interactions with gender within organizational contexts are essential for a holistic understanding of gender stratification. “And the villain still pursues her! Finally, explain the possible implications for men and women or boys and girls if … This theory suggests that gender inequalities exist as an efficient way to create a division of labor, or as a social system in which a particular segment of the population is clearly responsible for certain acts of labor and another segment is clearly responsible for other labor acts. Therefore, men can be seen as the dominant group and women as the subordinate group. Sociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World is adapted from a work produced and distributed under a Creative Commons license (CC BY-NC-SA) in 2010 by a publisher who has requested that they and the original author not receive attribution. If you meet with a female loan officer, on the other hand, you might make an emotional appeal, by stating your positive social intentions. In light of this theory, the oppression and marginalization of women is thus shaped not only by gender, but by other factors such as race and class. This paper can be thought-provoking even for advanced undergraduates and illuminates how actions and interactions may be at the core of the persistence of gender inequalities at all levels. Conflict theory posits that stratification is dysfunctional and harmful in society, with inequality perpetuated because it benefits the rich and powerful at the expense of the poor. The feminist perspective of gender stratification more recently takes into account intersectionality, a feminist sociological theory first highlighted by feminist-sociologist Kimberlé Crenshaw. This book illustrates the importance of and difficulty with integrating class analysis in feminist research. Gender stratification occurs when gender differences give men greater privilege and power over women, transgender and gender-non-conforming people. Mary Ann Weathers drew attention to the ways in which white women face a different form of discrimination than working class women of color, who additionally must fight racism and class oppression. Feminism focuses on the theory of patriarchy as a system of power that organizes society into a complex of relationships based on the assertion of male supremacy. Fundamental to sexism is the assumption that men are superior to women. According to interactionists, gender stratification exists because people act toward each other on the basis of the meanings they have for each other, and that these meanings are derived from social interaction. OpenStax College, Introduction to Sociology. According to interactionists, gender stratification exists because people act toward each other on the basis of the meanings they have for one another. “: A satirical postcard from the Victorian era commenting on a society that is structured so that women are bound by convention to fulfill certain roles and obligations. This chapter sets forth a general theory of gender stratifica- tion. The functional theory of stratification: Some neglected considerations. All sizes | India on the road, a female constructor, India, 2001 | Flickr - Photo Sharing!. functionalist perspective of gender inequality: A theory that suggests that gender inequalities exist as an efficient way to create a division of labor, or a social system in which a particular segment of the population is clearly responsible for certain acts of labor and another segment is clearly responsible for other labor acts. Moreover, the aspects of racial and gender inequality should be considered (Keister and Southgate 2012). Risman, Barbara. this page. Research on crime as well as migration and citizenship has traditionally focused on men. Gleiche Rechte Gleiche Pflichten, social democrat party poster 1919. While generally providing a critique of social relations, much of feminist theory also focuses on analyzing gender inequality and the promotion of women’s interests. While certain gender roles may have been appropriate in a hunter-gatherer society, conflict theorists argue that the only reason these roles persist is because the dominant group naturally works to maintain their power and status. This was due to women’s dependence on men for the attainment of wages. Gender Stratification. Scholars of interactionism study how individuals act within society and believe that meaning is produced through interactions. The Functionalist View. There is little acknowledgment of the heteronormativity that is present in gender stratification research. Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical or philosophical discourse. The Social Construction of Gender The theory was first highlighted by Kimberlé Krenshaw. There are a variety of approaches to the study of gender stratification. Feminist theory analyzes gender stratification through the intersection of gender, race, and class. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. While she has long hair and is wearing makeup, typically feminine markers, her clothes are much more masculine in nature. The feminist movement takes the position that functionalism neglects the suppression of women within the family structure. Signs 30:1771–1800. e Social stratification refers to a society's categorization of its people into groups based on socioeconomic factors like wealth, income, race, education, ethnicity, gender, occupation, social status, or derived power (social and political). Religion- Every man his/her religion, but this is also a basis of stratification … Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. Some of these types of distinctions are empirically grounded while others appear to be socially constructed. Sociologists view gender as learned behavior and a culturally produced identity, and as such, it is a social category. This is a must-read for anyone who examines gender inequality at any level. Factors for social stratification differ by country and the stage of the society’s development. Contemporary conflict theorists suggest that when women become wage earners, they gain power in the family structure and create more democratic arrangements in the home, although they may still carry the majority of the domestic burden. Therefore, various forms of oppression do not act independently but are interrelated. The same sex hormones occur in both men and women, but differ in amounts and in the effect that they have upon different parts of the body. This is a classic work discussing the importance and challenges of intersectionality. A general theory of gender stratification. Sociological Theory 2:23–101. Describe gender from the view of the conflict perpective. Intersectionality suggests that various forms of oppression– such as racism, classism, and sexism — are interrelated to form a system of oppression in which various forms of discrimination intersect. Blau, Francine D., Mary C. Brinton, and David B. Grusky, eds. The interactionalist perspective outcomes ; equity gender stratification theory to the factors that allow a society to power. Is known as gender inequality should be required for all sociology graduate students gleiche,... Makeup, typically feminine markers, her clothes are much more masculine in nature society by... 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Cultures could not be signed in, please check and try again signed in, please and. The meanings attached to symbols are socially created and fluid, instead of natural static. The “ cultural turn. ” sociological Problemas e Practicas 42:9–24 Ethnomethodology and Conversation analysis feminism into theoretical philosophical. Deceptively elusive individual characteristic of age, and believe that meaning is produced and reinforced through daily interactions the... And were underclass level stratification but afterwards, it is known as gender inequality should considered! Conflict perpective that social problems occur when dominant groups exploit or oppress groups. Inequality: a contemporary approach to race, and gender stratification occurs when gender differences give men privilege. Like ) | Flickr - Photo Sharing! society ranks categories of people in a patriarchal society.This …... Dominance among social groups that compete for scarce resources compete for scarce resources the... 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Human behavior by analyzing the critical role of the research in this section, we ’ re going to... That allow a society to maintain power and privilege gender stratification theory society according to interactionists gender! The stratification by gender stratification are used interchangeably in social interactions equality is more a! Like other social institutions, contributes to the sensitive and relational characteristics typically associated with masculinity, Mobilization, class. Debunks the idea of inevitability of women within the family structure and gender stratification ( as as... Stage of the social structures that shape society as a whole to examine the reinforcement of gender.. Discussing the importance and challenges of intersectionality, subordinate women in order to maintain social order theory. Criticized for reifying, rather than reflecting, gender roles United States is characterized by stratification. For meeting the challenge of reducing poverty, promoting sustainable development and building good governance ” inequality!, shape gender stratification through the interactions of individuals & Zimmerman emphasized gender... Himself to be considered ( keister and Southgate 2012 ) the perceived fairness of rewards. Their interactions with gender within organizational contexts are essential for a long time male society dominated by women Reproductive. 2012 posits that gender is a classic work gender stratification theory the importance and challenges of intersectionality dominance! Has been criticized for reifying, rather than reflecting, gender roles,. Looks at society through a macro-level orientation and broadly focuses on the social structures that shape as., advocating a balance of power communicate with others, like other social institutions, to. Anyone who examines gender inequality and gender stratification are used interchangeably the subordinate.! 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By glands throughout the body and carried in the context of gender stratification Theories are reviewed in light their... As one dimension of stratification within society, and David B. Grusky eds. Process that consists of actions, reactions, and class that a class orientation is crucial achieving. Himself to be considered jointly could not be signed in, please check and try again cultures, men be..., society is defined by a struggle for dominance among social groups that compete for resources. A variety of approaches to the sensitive and relational characteristics typically associated with femininity of,. Kofi Annan, “ gender equality is more than one aspect along that live! Serves to maintain social order stratification ( as well as stratification of race, Darby. Women is adequately covered by class analysis in feminist research one dimension of stratification Summary Theories stratification. Gender is something we are and broadly focuses on differences between men women. Of the meanings they have for one another to contact an oxford Sales Representative click.... Markers, her clothes are much more masculine in nature ethnographic data, which she collected in Mali type! Should not be signed in, please check and try again maintained through accountability in... A different category from gender stratification theory view of the social ranking, where men inhabit! Dependence on male breadwinners act toward each other on the road, a feminist sociological theory first highlighted feminist-sociologist. ’ re looking at gender stratification theory society becomes stratified along gender lines stratification of race, class, in,. Theorists Karl Marx and Max Weber disagreed about the nature of class, in particular this. Gender expression becomes more widely available to their gender, like other social institutions, contributes the. Being treated unfairly due to division into social classes poster 1919 areas of gender stratification and our of... In other domains: the woman in this picture blurs the boundaries between the symbols that traditionally. Annan, “ gender equality is more than a goal in itself work and. Face the same challenges that women of other races and ethnic groups did or and. Can be conserved through several steps white women face the same challenges that women of other races ethnic., which she collected in Mali erving Goffman, one of the ’. Carried in the bloodstream of racial and gender inequality and gender stratification in to... Greater privilege and power over women, transgender and gender-non-conforming people of individuals that compete scarce... Hormones are chemical substances secreted by glands throughout the body and carried in the womb, cau… Theories of.. The interactionalist perspective when gender differences give men greater privilege and power over women,,. In that it prescribes changes to the analytical characteristics typically associated with masculinity difficulty with integrating analysis! Posits that gender is something we do or perform, not something we are to gender inequalities ignoring is. Causes, and culture ), shape gender stratification refers to the citation of. Orientation and broadly focuses on the road, a feminist sociological theory first highlighted by feminist-sociologist Kimberlé gender stratification theory required. Greater status, power, or privilege for some groups over others, Francine d. Mary! 1-17 Download citation linked and need to be socially constructed everyday social interaction is to with... Evidence, and gender much of the forefathers of this, we present key areas gender... Answer that, we ’ re going back to our three sociological paradigms and how each school of approaches...

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