classification of cyperaceae

By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Cyperaceae are a family of graminoid (grass-like), monocotyledonous flowering plants known as sedges.The family is large, with some 5,500 known species described in about 90 genera, the largest being the "true sedges" genus Carex with over 2,000 species. Learn about the comparison between Poaceae and Cyperaceae. ” Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia; and Bruhl, J.J. (1995). Cyperaceae (about 100 genera, 5,500 species) is the third largest monocot family, with around 1,400 species occurring in Africa and Madagascar. Accessed: 2013 Sept. 16. The taxon, initally described as Scirpus membranaceus by Thunberg (1794), has been treated as a member of a number of several distinct genera depending on the interpretation of the floral characters. Updates? “Taxonomic relationships and photosynthetic pathways in the Cyperaceae. Species occurring in tropical or warm temperate regions, except for those that are widespread agricultural weeds, are generally confined to a single continent. The subfamily Sclerioideae is almost entirely tropical, with only a few species of Scleria occurring in the temperate zone. His modified Eichler schema first appeared in 1886 in his Guide to Breslau Botanic Garden (of which he was the director) and was expanded in his Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien in 1892. From this basic type, the remaining, more advanced members of the family can be derived by a reduction in the number of flowers, by the sterilization of flowers, and by the evolution of unisexuality in the loss of stamens or pistils within a flower. The most primitive type of spikelet is found in the genus Scirpus (bulrushes) and its relatives in the subfamily Cyperoideae. The smallest subfamily, the Mapanioideae, has about 170 species in 14 genera. These analyses place … This hypothesis is based on the observation that unisexual flowers in the Cyperaceae apparently have no vestiges of the other sex. Thus, most theories on the evolution of the Cyperaceae at this point are derived from studies of the morphology and development of the spikelets. Abilgaardia Poir. The Cyperaceae are grasslike herbaceous plants found especially in wet regions throughout the world. Most sedges have triangular stems ("edges"), except for Scripus, which has round stems. The Cyperaceae, among the 10 largest families of flowering plants, contain about 5,000 species and, depending on the classification used, between 70 and 115 genera. The Cyperoideae, the largest subfamily including about 70 genera and 2,400 species, has usually perfect flowers in simple spikes with often numerous spirally arranged or two-ranked scales. 2013. Epiphytes are very rare among the sedges, occurring primarily in the South American genus Everardia. 1995. The inflorescence then underwent reduction so that the male flowers were represented by only a single stamen each and the axis between them became greatly shortened. What have you found?" Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161(2): 105-121. This subfamily is highly specialized and entirely tropical. It is based on many lines of evidence, i.e. Click on names to expand them, and on P … Data from rbcL studies also support the view that Cyperaceae and Poaceae are not closely related (M. R. Duvall et al. (Cypereae, Cyperoideae, Cyperaceae): Insights from species tree reconstruction supplemented with morphological and floral developmental data. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Monocotyledons: Alismatanae and Commelinanae (except Gramineae) 141-190. International Plant Names Index. In this article, Scirpus is recognized in a narrow sense to include only the leafy bulrushes (about 40 species) in order to more accurately reflect the evolutionary relationships within the family. The goals of this study were to elucidate phylogenetic relationships in Eleocharis (Cyperaceae) using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and compare this phylogeny with three infrageneric classifications. This study is a compilation of information regarding sedge phytoliths from widely separated geographic areas. Classification according to nature of stem Herbacious:- Most of the weeds are herbaceous stemmed, succulent and susceptible to post emergence herbicides e.g. Premise of the study: Ten polymorphic microsatellite loci for the rare sword sedge Lepidosperma gibsonii (Cyperaceae) were characterized for the future study of population structure, hybridization, and clonality. The family is large, with some 5,500 species described in about 109 genera. A recent classification is that of Bruhl (1995). Included here are previously published descriptions along with newly interpreted material. – bulrush P: Genus Bolboschoenus (Asch.) 1995); they do support the concept of close relationship between Cyperaceae … In the tropics, Carex is uncommon in lowlands, although often diverse in montane regions. All Cyperus have a uniform embryo type and a relatively consistent morphology. A suprageneric classification of the Cyperaceae is proposed, in which the genera are explicitly assigned to twelve tribes and two subfamilies. Each of the six large genera except for Carex are primarily found in warm temperate or tropical regions, with only a few cold temperate species. The interpretation of this structure, and the resulting classification, varies from author to author. About the same number occur in eastern Asia, from Siberia through China to Japan. 0. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Bot. Cyperaceae in The Orders and Families of Monocotyledons. Current systems of classification of the Cyperaceae divide it into two to five subfamilies. The Scirpus spikelet is not the only type found in the subfamily Cyperoideae. Thirty Eleocharis species and eight outgroups were analyzed using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses. The members are distributed throughout all the continents except Antarctica. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Austral. This hypothesis is thought by many, including Arthur Cronquist, to introduce unnecessary complexity in floral morphology for which there is little support. https://www.britannica.com/plant/Cyperaceae. Many species of sedges also occur in understories of diverse types of forest, both temperate and tropical. Suprageneric classification of Cyperaceae. The spikelet of the Caricoideae can, in theory, be derived from the Scirpus-type by a reduction in flower number and conversion to unisexual flowers, and its relationships are probably with the Cyperoideae subfamily. The family Cyperaceae, or the sedges, is a taxon of flowering plants that superficially resemble grasses or rushes.. Targeted sequencing supports morphology and embryo features in resolving the classification of Cyperaceae tribe Fuireneae s.l. Cytological features discussed above clearly indicate that to be a superficial similarity. Cyperus is recognized here in a broad sense, although the genus Kyllinga is not included with it. Plants of the Sedge Family "Sedges have edges. Class Liliopsida – Monocotyledons: Subclass Commelinidae: Order Cyperales: Family Cyperaceae – Sedge family : Contains 40 Genera and 1327 accepted taxa overall : Down one level : Genus Abildgaardia Vahl – sedge P: Genus Blysmus Panzer ex Schult. The APG III system incorporates molecular data and phylogenetic methods and represents the most up-to-date classification … Infrageneric Classification of Eleocharis (Cyperaceae) Revisited: Evidence from the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) Region of Nuclear Ribosomal DNA ERIC H. ROALSON and ELIZABETH A. FRIAR Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, 1500 North College Avenue, Claremont, California 91711 Communicating Editor: Jeff H. Rettig ABSTRACT. Current systems of classification of the Cyperaceae divide it into two to five subfamilies. Although there is a large number of species in Arctic, temperate, and tropical regions, the diversity of genera is far greater in tropical regions. Cyperaceae in The Orders and Families of Monocotyledons. Eleocharis also has a number of species in cold temperate or even Arctic regions, although the great bulk of its 200 species are confined to warmer areas. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. The Cyperaceae, among the 10 largest families of flowering plants, contain about 5,000 species and, Abstract. Bruhl, J. Published on the internet. Stem-Cylindrical, hollow, (except Maize and Sugarcane), with nodes. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Syst. Many species of sedges that occur in northern latitudes have circumpolar distributions. Acrocarpus Nees. Most of the remaining genera of Cyperaceae are quite small, almost all with less than 30 species, and many with only a single species. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. Cyperaceae. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Family Cactaceae. Engler's works. Genera recognized here that are sometimes included in Scirpus are Bolboschoenus, Isolepis, Schoenoplectus, and Trichophorum (club rushes). Species preferring moist, sunny sites may also occur in man-made habitats such as ditches and canal banks. Class Cycadinae; Class Coniferae; Class Gnetales; Subdivision Angiospermae (Metaspermae) Class Monocotyledoneae (10 orders) p. 18; Class Dicotyledoneae Subclass Archichlamydeae (Choripetalae, Apetalae) (25 orders) p. 30; Subclass Sympetalae (10 orders) p. 57; Division Zoidogamae (Archegoniatae) Subdivision Bryophyta Class Hepaticae; Class Musci frondosi Phytotaxa, 166, 1–32. Our study improved this classification as well as classification systems describing other typical morphotypes of Cyperaceae (Honaine et al., 2009). The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. Cyperaceae. Accessed 16 Sept. 2013. Thirty Eleocharis species and eight outgroups were analyzed using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses. A majority of sedges, however, are plants of sunny, moist to wet habitats such as fresh and salt marshes, pond and lakeshores, meadows, bogs, fens, wet prairies and savannas, and moist to wet tundra. The goals of this study were to elucidate phylogenetic relationships in Eleocharis (Cyperaceae) using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and compare this phylogeny with three infrageneric classifications. Classification of Cyperaceae. In recent systematic treatments of the Cyperaceae, spikelets of all but the most primitive tribes have been considered to be indeterminate, whereas historically the number of flowers, floral sex and distribution of sexes in spikelets have been important characters in suprageneric classifications. The family is divided into subfamilies and tribes, based mainly on inflorescence and floret structure. Other large genera are Bulbostylis, with approximately 100 species; Schoenus, also with about 100 species; and Mapania, with up to 80 species. 1993b; G. M. Plunkett et al. Methods and results: Twenty samples from each of three populations were screened with the markers to assess genetic variation. Spikelets characteristic of Rhynchospora and its allies and Cladium and its allies are derived by a reduction in the number of flowers per spikelet and a sterilization of lowermost or uppermost flowers, as well as by the conversion of some bisexual flowers to staminate only; in Rhynchospora, for example, male flowers are above the perfect flowers, and in Cladium male flowers are below. Comparison # Poaceae (Gramineae): 1. Sedges have been the subject of research at Kew for many years and a profound knowledge of this beautiful family has been built up during the past decades. (1990). 2. The spikelet found in Cyperus and several related, smaller genera is similar, but the lowermost bract does not bear a flower. The Cyperaceae is a cosmopolitan family of monocotyledonous plants with about 5 000 species, of which 1500 are C4 plants (Bruhl and Wilson, 2007). The pseudanthium is thought to be derived from a hypothetical prototype inflorescence in which a single female flower terminates an axis along which numerous male flowers are situated in the axils of bracts. The six largest genera within the Cyperaceae account for about 3,500 species, nearly three-quarters of the total species: Carex (sedges; see photograph), with about 2,000 species; Cyperus, with nearly 650 species; Rhynchospora (beak rushes), with roughly 250 species; and Fimbristylis, Eleocharis (spike rushes), and Scleria (nut rushes), each with about 200 species. Cyperaceae, sedge family of monocotyledonous flowering plants, a division of the order Poales. The caricoid spikelet, characteristic of Carex and its satellite genera in the subfamily Caricoideae, is a highly specialized, reduced spikelet with uniformly unisexual flowers. Cyperaceae. Classification of Cyperaceae. Plants of the Sedge Family "Sedges have edges. Sedge genera of the world: Relationships and a new classification of the Cyperaceae. The limits of these genera are also somewhat unsettled, with the circumscription and limits of such well-known genera as Cyperus and Scirpus (bulrushes or clubrushes) being somewhat controversial. The female flowers are always solitary and borne within a perigynium derived from the partly or wholly closed first leaf (prophyll) of the spikelet axis. The highly reduced, unisexual flowers are grouped together tightly in such a way as to simulate a single flower (pseudanthium). Semi woody:- Weeds having herbaceous stem in their early growth period and tending to become woody in their advanced growth stages e.g. Typological Classification of Cyperaceae Embryos--a Historic Overview Van der Veken (1964, 1965) demonstrated that in Cyperaceae the variation in embryo morphology within species is relatively small. Relationships among C 4 genera of Cyperaceae, based on morphological data [Bruhl, J. SELECTED REFERENCES. Other large genera are basically distributed throughout the tropical regions of the Earth, with only a few outlying species in cold temperate regions. The rather uniform morphology of the nonreproductive parts of the plant body as well as the highly reduced flowers make deduction of evolutionary patterns from living sedges difficult. This reflected the new post-Darwinian perspective.Engler's Syllabus first appeared in 1892 with the title Syllabus der Vorlesungen über specielle und medicinisch-pharmaceutische Botanik. A division of the family into two subfamilies would result in the subfamily Cyperoideae with usually bisexual flowers and the subfamily Caricoideae with unisexual flowers, but many botanists consider this to be a rather arbitrary division. Recent taxonomic investigation of the suprageneric classification of the Cyperaceae has made clarification of the nomenclature an urgent necessity. Curator of Vascular Plants, University of Michigan Herbarium, Ann Arbor. The reduction in the inflorescence was so extreme that it strongly resembles a flower—hence the term pseudanthium. Genus. In the genus Hypolytrum, only the two opposite stamens and their subtending bracts are present beneath the female flower. Schoenus is basically found in the Old World, with only a few of its species located in the New World. The apparent flowers of other genera of Cyperaceae are thus also pseudanthia, and the seemingly simple, bisexual flowers of, for example, Scirpus, with three stamens and a single ovary, is actually a pseudanthium composed of three male flowers each with one anther and one female flower of a single pistil. Flowering Plants. Grasses are hollow. The fruiting time has been interpreted broadly to include the period when the fruit is … Rushes are round. A new classification for Lipocarpha and Volkiella as infrageneric taxa of Cyperus s.l. The Caricoideae, the next largest subfamily, has 2,100 species dispersed among only 5 genera and is characterized by unisexual flowers with the female in single-flowered spikelets enclosed by a bract. Genus. Carex, the largest genus, is widespread throughout the world, except in desert or semidesert regions. Grasses are hollow. Also, it assumes that the broad-leaved tropical lowland species of the subfamily Mapanioideae are the most primitive representatives of the family. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. It is based on many lines of evidence, i.e. This subfamily may have originated from plants with branched inflorescences similar to the hypothetical prototype ancestral to the subfamily Mapanioideae; however, the male flowers immediately below the terminal female flower were reduced to bracts, while branches below this point on the inflorescence have lost their terminal female flower and bear a few male flowers and one or a few distal bracts. Goetghebeur, P. (1998) Cyperaceae. Classification: About the Classification Report About the Classification Download . The fruiting time has been interpreted broadly to include the period when the fruit is … Abildgaardia Vahl. Classification: About the Classification Report About the Classification Download . Table 3 contains a summary of studies, species, the main morphotype, and the observed variations in the predominant morphotype. Most sedges have triangular stems ("edges"), except for Scripus, which has round stems. Cyperaceae. Some authorities have proposed a hypothesis of evolution in the Cyperaceae that is essentially the reverse direction of evolution to that presented above—that is, that unisexual flowers were the primitive condition. Cyperaceae, sedge family of monocotyledonous flowering plants, a division of the order Poales. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Euphorbia helioscopia, fumaria indica etc. The subfamily Sclerioideae has about 14 genera and 300 species; its flowers also are unisexual, but its fruit is not enveloped by a similar bract. In some classifications, for example, up to 300 species have been included in broad definitions of Scirpus; however, as so defined, Scirpus is extremely diverse and includes several different embryo types (defined by shape and relative orientation of the parts) and a number of fundamentally different morphological forms. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Rushes are round. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. 8: 125–305. Male flowers occur in the axils of bracts either on the rachilla extending beyond the female flower or on axes bearing perigynia. Although fossil sedges are known from as early as the Eocene, they are as yet of little use in interpreting evolution in Cyperaceae because they are both fragmentary and apparently closely resemble modern groups. This study is a compilation of information regarding sedge phytoliths from widely separated geographic areas. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. A division of the family into two subfamilies would result in the subfamily Cyperoideae with usually bisexual flowers and the subfamily Caricoideae with unisexual flowers, but many botanists consider this to be a rather arbitrary division. The ecological diversity of sedges is tremendous, with species occurring in almost all habitats except extreme deserts and marine and deep-water ecosystems. The evolutionary relationships of the Caricoideae are unclear. It is hoped that all the data presented will be of use in the future development of a classification scheme for phytoliths of Cyperaceae. Genus. Because most Cyperaceae cannot be reliably identified when in flower, in this volume fruiting time is given for all species by season, sometimes qualified by early, mid, or late, or by months. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. This common rhyme can help you remember the key differences between the Sedge, Rush, and Grass families. Goetghebeur, P. (1998) Cyperaceae. Palla – bulrush P: Genus Bulbostylis Kunth – hairsedge P The subfamily Sclerioideae also has inflorescences with terminal female flowers but the branches housing the male flowers below the female flowers are slightly more extended, though still short. Scirpus has many-flowered spikelets with all but the topmost bracts bearing flowers. 17. This common rhyme can help you remember the key differences between the Sedge, Rush, and Grass families. Some are adapted to specialized habitats, including sand dunes, freshwater lakes and streams, and cliffs. A recent classification is that of Bruhl (1995). The Cyperaceae are grasslike herbaceous plants found especially in wet regions throughout the world. Published on the internet. Omissions? Developing a comprehensive infrasectional classification with a phylogenetic basis would be complicated by the fact that most of the novel morphological characters in the section have evolved … Published online. The interpretation of this structure, and the resulting classification, varies from author to author. The family is divided into subfamilies and tribes, based mainly on inflorescence and floret structure. In the tribe Bisboekelereae, the bracts below the terminal female flower are united to form a perigynium somewhat similar to that of the subfamily Caricoideae, though evolved independently. Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Family Poaceae. The subfamily Mapanioideae has a pseudanthium, or false flower, composed of a single terminal female flower surrounded by a number of naked stamens, each of which is subtended by a bract with the lowest two stamens situated opposite each other. Included here are previously published descriptions along with newly interpreted material. They suggest that inflorescences of the subfamily Mapanioideae, with their pseudanthia composed of tiny, unisexual flowers, represent the primitive condition in the Cyperaceae. Click on names to … It is hoped that all the data presented will be of use in the future development of a classification scheme for phytoliths of Cyperaceae. Accessed: 2013 Sept. 16. 1) Core Carex clade: to be treated as the type subgenus, as it includes the lectotype species C. hirta L. It also... 2) Unispicate clade: a taxonomically heterogeneous assemblage in the genus. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Abstract. Four subfamilies are recognized in this article. Because most Cyperaceae cannot be reliably identified when in flower, in this volume fruiting time is given for all species by season, sometimes qualified by early, mid, or late, or by months. What have you found?" The uniformly unisexual flowers, however, have also prompted botanists to align it with the subfamily Sclerioideae, which has unisexual flowers as well. The greatest diversity of species in Carex occurs in the United States, where about 500 species are found. Clearly indicate that to be a superficial similarity Sclerioideae is almost entirely tropical, with a! Thirty Eleocharis species and eight outgroups were analyzed using maximum parsimony and likelihood! Growth period and tending to become woody in their early growth period and tending to become woody in their growth! This structure, and cliffs in cold temperate regions Group classification for Lipocarpha and Volkiella as infrageneric taxa Cyperus... University, Canberra, Australia ; and Bruhl, J found in the subfamily Cyperoideae a! View that Cyperaceae and Poaceae are not closely related ( M. R. et. In about 109 genera the new world basically found in Cyperus and several related, smaller is. Two to five subfamilies the observation that unisexual flowers are grouped together tightly in such a as... Several related, smaller genera is similar, but the lowermost bract does not a... Most primitive type of spikelet is not the only type found in the genus Scirpus ( bulrushes ) and relatives... From species tree reconstruction supplemented with morphological and floral developmental data also support concept... Bulrushes ) and its relatives in the genus Kyllinga is not the only type found in Cyperus and related... Axils of bracts either on the rachilla extending beyond the female flower or on axes bearing perigynia offers. Together tightly in such a way as to simulate a single flower ( pseudanthium ) sedges... By signing up for this email, you are agreeing classification of cyperaceae news,,. Asch. 1995 ) email, you are agreeing to news, offers and... Are adapted to specialized habitats, including Arthur Cronquist, to introduce unnecessary complexity in floral morphology for there... Schoenus is basically found in Cyperus and several related, smaller genera is similar but. Website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida other. Sedge family `` sedges have edges several related, smaller genera is similar, but the topmost bracts flowers! Cyperaceae … suprageneric classification of the family highly reduced, unisexual flowers in the South American genus.... Along with newly interpreted material related, smaller genera is similar, but lowermost... Early growth period and tending to become woody in their advanced growth e.g! That unisexual flowers in the future development of a classification scheme for phytoliths of Cyperaceae a of... Of plants within the state and taxonomic information: genus Bolboschoenus ( Asch. for which there is support... Data presented will be of use in the axils of bracts either on rachilla! Except Maize and Sugarcane ), with only a few of its species located in axils... Its relatives in the subfamily Cyperoideae and marine and deep-water ecosystems a database images!: Insights from species tree reconstruction supplemented with morphological and floral developmental data genus,... And floret structure this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia.! Canberra, Australia ; and Bruhl, J complexity in floral morphology for which there is little support consistent.. The title Syllabus der Vorlesungen über specielle und medicinisch-pharmaceutische Botanik studies, species, the largest genus, widespread. Species in cold temperate regions not included with it except extreme deserts and and..., but the lowermost bract does not bear a flower article ( requires login.! Post-Darwinian perspective.Engler 's Syllabus First appeared in 1892 with the markers to genetic! Bear a flower here in a broad sense, although often diverse in montane regions know if have...

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